Resources

Appendix 1: State Law Overview

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Appendix 2: Individual State Law Summaries

Click on a state name below to view more information about potential legal issues. You can also visit the interactive map to see which states have "red flags" for each type of legal issue.

(information last updated Fall 2017)

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Appendix 3: Pollutants Monitored by the EPA

Resources for Learning About a Pollutant

Resources that are Highlighted Report Pollutant Quantities

Pollutant Type

Description

References

Air Pollutants

List of Hazardous Air Pollutants

https://www.epa.gov/haps/initial-list-hazardous-air-pollutants-modifications; Clean Air Act Section 112(b)

National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards

40 CFR 50

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

https://www.epa.gov/compliance/national-emission-standards-hazardous-air-pollutants-compliance-monitoring; 40 CFR 61

National Ambient Air Quality Standards Table

https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table%20

Ozone - Depleting Substances

Class I Controlled Substances

40 CFR 82, Appendix A to Subpart A

Class II Controlled Substances

40 CFR 82, Appendix B to Subpart A

Listing of Ozone-Depleting Chemicals

40 CFR 82, Appendix F to Subpart A

Water Pollutants

List of Hazardous Substances

CWA Section 311(b)(4)

Alphabetical and by CAS number

40 CFR 116.4

Reportable Quantities of Hazardous Substances Designated Pursuant to Section 311 of the Clean Water Act

40 CFR 117.3

Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards

40 CFR 129

Ground Water Monitoring List

40 CFR 264, Appendix IX

Toxic Pollutant List

40 CFR 401.15

Priority Pollutant List

40 CFR 423, Appendix A

Drinking Water Standards

Table of Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants

https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations

Maximum Contaminant Levels for Organic Contaminants

40 CFR 141.61

Maximum Contaminant Levels for Inorganic Contaminants

40 CFR 141.62

Maximum Contaminant Levels for Microbiological Contaminants

40 CFR 141.63

Maximum Contaminant Levels for Disinfection Byproducts

40 CFR 141.64

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels

40 CFR 141.65

Maximum Contaminant Levels of Radionuclides

40 CFR 141.66

Monitoring Requirements for Lead and Copper in Tap Water

40 CFR 141.86

Monitoring Requirements for Lead and Copper in Source Water

40 CFR 141.88

Hazardous Wastes Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Hazardous Wastes from Non-Specific Sources

40 CFR 261.31

Hazardous Wastes from Specific Sources

40 CFR 261.32

Discarded Commercial Chemical Products, Off-Specification Species, Container Residues, and Spill Residues Thereof (Acute and Toxic Wastes)

40 CFR 261.33

Hazardous Constituents List

40 CFR 261, Appendix VIII

Wastes Excluded from Specific Sources

40 CFR 261, Appendix IX, Table 1

Hazardous Substances Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

List of Hazardous Substances and Their Reportable Quantities

40 CFR 302.4

Extremely Hazardous Substances Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities

40 CFR 355, Appendix A – B

Alphabetical, by CAS number, and chemical category

40 CFR 372.65

 

Appendix 4: Public Compliance and Permit Records

Resources for Learning About a Pollutant Source

Category

Description

References

General: EPA Compliance

Description of how the EPA measures compliance

https://www.epa.gov/compliance/how-we-monitor-compliance

Compilation of EPA Compliance Records

https://echo.epa.gov/

Clean Air

Compilation of EPA Resources

https://www.epa.gov/caa-permitting/caa-permitting-tools-related-resources

Title V Permits: General Information

https://www.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits

Title V Permits: Who has to obtain a Title V Permit?

https://www.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/who-has-obtain-title-v-permit

Title V Permits: EPA Issued Operating Permits

https://www.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/epa-issued-operating-permits

Title V Permits: Links to Resources of Regional Office Websites

https://www.epa.gov/caa-permitting

Integrated Compliance Information System - Air (ICIS-AIR): a. “ICIS-AIR contains compliance and permit data for stationary sources of air pollution (such as electric power plants, steel mills, factories, and universities) regulated by EPA, state and local air pollution agencies. The information in ICIS-AIR is used by the states to prepare State Implementation Plans (SIPs) and to track the compliance status of point sources with various regulatory programs under Clean Air Act.”

https://www.epa.gov/enviro/icis-air-search

Clean Water

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit Inventory: “This search tool allows users to search for NPDES general permits by permit number, permit name, state, EPA region, date issued, date expired, or permit category.”

https://ofmpub.epa.gov/apex/aps/f?p=GPWI:HOME::::::

Permit Compliance System - Integrated Compliance Information (PCS-ICIS): a. “This search allows you to retrieve selected data . . . regarding facilities registered with the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and holding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.”

https://www.epa.gov/enviro/pcs-icis-search

Clean Water Act DMR Pollutant Loading Tool: "This tool helps users determine who is discharging, what pollutants they are discharging and how much, and where they are discharging."

https://cfpub.epa.gov/dmr/

The Assessment TMDL Tracking & Implementation System (ATTAINS): “Provides information reported by the states to EPA about the conditions in their surface waters and allows users to view tables and charts summarizing state-reported data for the nation as a whole, individual states, individual waters and the 10 EPA regions.”

https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/assessment-and-total-maximum-daily-load-tracking-and-implementation-system-attains

Clean Drinking Water

Consumer Confidence Reports

https://ofmpub.epa.gov/apex/safewater/f?p=136:102::::::)

Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS): “Contains information about public water systems and their violations of EPA's drinking water regulations. Searching SDWIS will allow you to locate your drinking water supplier and view its violations and enforcement history for the last ten years.”

https://www.epa.gov/enviro/sdwis-search

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

General Permitting Resources

https://www.epa.gov/hwpermitting

Hazardous Waster Permitting in Your State: Provides “a map and an alphabetically linked list of state hazardous waste permit websites . . . In some cases, states have posted lists of permitted treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs).”

https://www.epa.gov/hwpermitting/hazardous-waste-permitting-your-state

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo): a. “You may use the RCRAInfo Search to determine identification and location data for specific hazardous waste handlers, and to find a wide range of information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with Federal and State regulations, and cleanup activities.”

https://www3.epa.gov/enviro/facts/rcrainfo/search.html

Other Resources

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI): “The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) tracks the management of over 650 toxic chemicals that pose a threat to human health and the environment. U.S. facilities in certain industry sectors that manufacture, process, or otherwise use these chemicals in amounts above established levels must report how each chemical is managed through recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and releases to the environment. A “release” of a chemical means that it is emitted to the air or water, or placed in some type of land disposal. The information submitted by facilities to the EPA and states is compiled annually as the Toxics Release Inventory or TRI.”

https://www.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program

Biennial Reports Search: “The Hazardous Waste Report (Biennial Report) collects data on the generation, management, and minimization of hazardous waste. This provides detailed data on the generation of hazardous waste from large quantity generators and data on waste management practices from treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The Biennial Report data provide a basis for trend analyses. Data about hazardous waste activities is reported for odd number years (beginning with 1989) to EPA. EPA then provides reports on hazardous waste generation and management activity that accompany the data files. You may use a variety of data retrieval options in the BR Search to search for other facilities that interest you.”

https://www.epa.gov/enviro/br-search

Envirofacts: Provides links to various public databases.  Also provides a search functionality that incorporates various databases into one.

https://www3.epa.gov/enviro/

Appendix 5: EPA Reference Methods, Standard Protocols, etc.

Resources Related to EPA Reference Methods, Standard Protocols, Etc.

Sample Type

Sample Subcategory

Description

References

All

-

General Resources

https://www.epa.gov/measurements/collection-methods; Index to EPA Test Methods (April 2003 Revised)

Air

Source Emission Methods

Promulgated Methods: those that have been promulgated in the Federal Register and Codified in the CFR (Method - #)

https://www.epa.gov/emc/emc-promulgated-test-methods; 40 CFR 51, Appendix M; 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix F, Appendix J; 40 CFR 61, Appendix B; 40 CFR 63, Appendix A

Proposed Methods: those that have been published in the Federal Register as proposed rules, but have not yet been promulgated

https://www.epa.gov/emc/emc-proposed-test-methods

Approved Alternative: those approved under 40 CFR Parts 60, 601, and 63 (ALT - #)

https://www.epa.gov/emc/broadly-applicable-approved-alternative-test-methods

Conditional Methods: methods that were at one point labeled this way, so they have remained so for consistency (CTM - #)

https://www.epa.gov/emc/emc-conditional-test-methods

Other Methods: methods which have not yet been subject to the federal rulemaking process (Premiliminary Methods [PRE - #]; Preliminary Performance Specification [PPS - #]; and Other Test Methods [OTM - #])

https://www.epa.gov/emc/emc-other-test-methods

Ambient Monitoring Methods

Criteria Pollutants: TSP, Particulate Matter – PM10, Particulate Matter – PM2.5, Particulate Matter – PM10-2.5, SO2, O3, CO, NO2, Pb

List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods (Dec. 2016)

Air Toxins - Inorganic Compendium (Method IO - #)

https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/inorg.html

Air Toxins - Organic Compendium (Method IO - #)

 

 

 

 

https://www.epa.gov/pcbs/compendium-methods-determination-toxic-organic-compounds-ambient-air

Water

Drinking Water Analytical Methods

Disinfection Byproduct Rules

https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100PHKC.txt; 40 CFR 141.131; 40 CFR Part 141, Appendix A of Subpart C

Alternative Testing Methods: methods which have been approved under the Safe Drinking Water Act

http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=1&SID=3dd522e2d428d7cb3b40da85488eb956&ty=HTML&h=L&mc=true&r=APPENDIX&n=ap40.25.141_129.a; 40 CFR 40 CFR 141, Appendix A of Subpart C

Ground Water Rule

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-02/documents/gwr_approved_methods.pdf; 40 CFR 40 CFR 141, Appendix A of Subpart C

Inorganic Contaminants and Other Inorganic Constituents

https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100PHGZ.txt; 40 CFR 141.23; 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C

Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

https://www.epa.gov/dwreginfo/long-term-2-enhanced-surface-water-treatment-rule-documents; methods for Cryptosporidium are listed at 40 CFR 141.704, methods for enumeration of E. coli in source water are listed in Table 1H at 40 CFR 136.3(a) and the methods for turbidity are listed at 40 CFR 141.74. Additional methods are listed in 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C. The monitoring requirements for these contaminants are specified in 40 CFR 141.701-703

Organic Contaminants

https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100PHJC.txt; 40 CFR 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C

Radionuclides

https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100PHIN.txt; 40 CFR 141.25; 40 CFR 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C

Revised Total Coliform Rule

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-02/documents/rtcr_approved_methods.pdf; 40 CFR 141.852(a)(5); 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C

Secondary Contaminants

https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100PHL2.txt; methods for copper, fluoride and pH are listed in 40 CFR 141.23; methods for the remaining contaminants are in 40 CFR 143.440; CFR 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C

Surface Water Treatment Methods

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-02/documents/swtr_approved_methods.pdf; 40 CFR 141.74(a)(1); 40 CFR 141, Appendix A to Subpart C Appendix A

Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

Chemical Methods: Inorganic Non-Metals

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-cwa-test-methods-inorganic-non-metals; 40 CFR 136; 40 CFR 401 – 503

Chemical Methods: Metals

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-cwa-test-methods-metals; 40 CFR 136; 40 CFR 401 - 503

Chemical Methods: Organic

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-cwa-test-methods-organic-compounds; 40 CFR 136; 40 CFR 401 - 503

Microbial Methods: wastewater and sewage sludge and ambient water

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-cwa-microbiological-test-methods; 40 CFR 136; 40 CFR 401 - 503

Whole Effluent Toxicity Methods: acute, chronic freshwater, and chronic marine/estuarine

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/whole-effluent-toxicity-methods; 40 CFR 136.3, Table 1A

Radiochemical Methods

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-cwa-radiochemical-test-methods; 40 CFR 136; 40 CFR 401 – 503

Industry-Specific Methods

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/approved-industry-specific-cwa-test-methods

Other Clean Water Act Methods

Chemical Methods

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/other-clean-water-act-test-methods-chemical

Microbial Methods

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/other-clean-water-act-test-methods-microbiological

Biosolids

https://www.epa.gov/cwa-methods/other-clean-water-act-test-methods-biosolids

Unapproved

Environmental Chemistry Methods

https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-analytical-methods/environmental-chemistry-methods-ecm-index-0-9

Solid Waste and Emergency Response

Approved

SW-846 Methods

https://www.epa.gov/hw-sw846/sw-846-compendium

Unapproved

Validated Methods

https://www.epa.gov/hw-sw846/validated-test-methods-recommended-waste-testing

 

Discussion

Please note that this discussion is not moderated by the Emmett Environmental Law & Policy Clinic.